《BRAN-NEW! + Hardcover Edition + Insightful Account Of The Grand Game Of Chess & The History of Artificial Intelligence》Gary Kasparov - DEEP THINKING : Where Machine Intelligence Ends and Human Creativity Begins
Garry Kasparov's 1997 chess match against the IBM supercomputer Deep Blue was a watershed moment in the history of technology. It was the dawn of a new era in artificial intelligence: a machine capable of beating the reigning human champion at this most cerebral game. That moment was more than a century in the making, and in this breakthrough book, Kasparov reveals his astonishing side of the story for the first time. He describes how it felt to strategize against an implacable, untiring opponent with the whole world watching, and recounts the history of machine intelligence through the microcosm of chess, considered by generations of scientific pioneers to be a key to unlocking the secrets of human and machine cognition. Kasparov uses his unrivaled experience to look into the future of intelligent machines and sees it bright with possibility. As many critics decry artificial intelligence as a menace, particularly to human jobs, Kasparov shows how humanity can rise to new heights with the help of our most extraordinary creations, rather than fear them. Deep Thinking is a tightly argued case for technological progress, from the man who stood at its precipice with his own career at stake. Deep Thinking by Garry Kasparov is an autobiographical retelling of his historic series of matches against the IBM chess machine, Deep Blue. Kasparov also uses this book to expound on the history of Artificial Intelligence (AI), with a focus on its application to chess, and provides his thoughts on how humanity can embrace AI to build a better tomorrow. Kasparov does an outstanding job of setting the stage for his confrontation with Deep Blue, covering not only his ascension to the highest pinnacle of the professional chess ranks, but also the evolution of computer chess, from both hardware and algorithmic perspectives. The most enlightening element of Deep Blue was that Kasparov never viewed computers as his mortal enemy; instead, he was one of the first players to embrace and adopt their use in chess training and preparations. The predominant theme throughout Deep Thinking is the power of the application of technology to better humankind. Kasparov implores not just scientists, engineers and technologists, but also everyday people to engage in applying existing technology in new ways. As a book, Deep Thinking does wander a bit in places and leaves a few key arguments unsupported, but given that Kasparov is the last World Chess Champion to beat a computer in a chess match, this is can be easily overlooked. Deep Thinking is worth a read for anyone interested in the past, current and future directions of AI. Kasparov discusses all technological developments that eventually led to his match with IBM's Deep Blue. The purpose of the book also seems to be a chance for Kasparov to explain his side of the story. I had picked up this book after reading about this match in Nate Silver's The Signal and The Noise. Silver paints Kasparov as a sore loser that couldn't deal with his loss and went berserk claiming that IBM cheated. However, Kasparov seems to give a more fair depiction where he acknowledges his flaws but also uses evidence to outline the unfair lengths that IBM went to for winning. The book comes across as passionate, just like Kasparov himself. It is incredibly well written! Kasparov discusses how our heuristics (rules of thumb) create biases. For example, in chess one tends to follow "move A must be accompanied by move B" which can limit creativity and progress. Machines and humans each possess certain weaknesses which are complemented by the other. Furthermore, technological development and progress in AI cannot be avoided. So instead of focusing on the doomsday scenarios, we need to learn how to work better with machines. And while using machines for better processes isn't cheating, it can induce a cognitive limp as we heavily rely on digital crutches. However, the book left us thinking about: 1. How can we be so sure that machines would make us more objective if, as programmers, it is possible that we have programmed our biases into the machine? 2. If data was being deleted at every reboot of Deep Blue, then why wait till the end of the match to get the logs? 3.If upon being restarted the machine would play a move completely different than what it would have played earlier, then how would the machine logs at the end of the game be of any use? This seemed odd considering Kasparov's tactic of finding improvements over his opponents' play. About the Author Garry Kasparov is a business speaker, global human rights activist, author, and former world chess champion. His keynote lectures and seminars on strategic thinking, achieving peak performance, and tech innovation have been acclaimed in dozens of countries. A frequent contributor to the Wall Street Journal, he is the author of two books, How Life Imitates Chess and Winter is Coming, each of which has been translated into more than a dozen languages. He is a Senior Visiting Fellow at the Oxford Martin School, working in cooperation with the Future of Humanity Institute. He lives in New York.
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